Genetic differences can allow a person to have a male genetic make-up and female anatomy or body chemistry. There is no more certificate of femininity. In theory, they might even be at a disadvantage, since most women carry small amounts of functional testosterone. More importantly, sports doctors and officials should be wary of encouraging women to undergo irreversible treatments for their intersex conditions, since the rules on those conditions can change from one year to the next. One major problem was unfairly excluding women who had a birth defect involving gonads and external genitalia i.
But genetic-testing data from the Olympics suggest such androgen-insensitive women might, in fact, be overrepresented among elite athletes. Meanwhile, the onus for bringing official scrutiny to this new regulation is once again placed on athletes in the regulated events, one of whom would have to bring a new case to the court. While it may once have seemed like progress to abolish mandatory screens, the alternative—suspicion-based testing, where women can be singled out by secret allegations—harms more than it protects. This method of testing was later abolished, as it was shown to be inconclusive in identifying maleness. Anyone found to have markers of a Y chromosome would be barred from competition. The authors found that: Advertisement The testosterone standard was indeed more sensitive than earlier screenings for Y chromosomes. Second, any tested athlete who had a very high level of testosterone would be subject to a holistic follow-up exam involving her genetics, hormones, anatomy, etc. Are these putative advantages for sports at all comparable to those derived from having functional testosterone? In , the sports authorities reinstated her, and within the next few years they did away with mandatory testing for every female athlete. More importantly, sports doctors and officials should be wary of encouraging women to undergo irreversible treatments for their intersex conditions, since the rules on those conditions can change from one year to the next. Efforts to divide male and female athletes have always faced a daunting problem of biology: In July , she was cleared to compete again by the IAAF after she was believed to have taken a course of testosterone-suppressing medication. It was up to the medical professionals to draw a bright line somewhere within the fine gradations of biological sex, marking off the boundary between, say, an enlarged clitoris and a micropenis. It describes her clever study of race results from transgender women runners like herself, collected over seven years. There were refinements to this test as time went on, but certain problems never went away: Follow-up was crucial because the subjects were not male impostors, but intersexed individuals. As such her levels of testosterone are likely to confer a real advantage in her sport. But the options available thrust them into impossible decisions. Semenya addressed the controversy in early Dreger had a point: In theory, they might even be at a disadvantage, since most women carry small amounts of functional testosterone. They can lower their testosterone using medically unnecessary interventions. Instead, these Regulations are designed to identify circumstances in which a particular athlete will not be eligible by reason of hormonal characteristics to participate in OG Competitions in the female category. It also repeated an earlier policy statement that, to "avoid discrimination, if not eligible for female competition the athlete should be eligible to compete in male competition". His view is not official IOC policy, though.
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Sports Gender Controversy - Bonus Scene
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