Well-known examples in people include genes that control color blindness and male pattern baldness. This is why males exhibit some traits more frequently than females. If an X sperm fertilizes an egg, the embryo becomes a female. But in males ZZ , two alleles work together to determine feather color according to their dominance. Red-green colorblindness — Inability differentiate between read and green.
And males make sperm, which can have an X or a Y. The X chromosome is larger and carries more genes than the Y chromosome See diagram above. One gene on the Z chromosome affects feather color ; three different alleles make feathers blue, ash-red, or brown. Above Female pigeons inherit their color allele from their father. Usually such genes are found on the X chromosome. These 2 chromosomes are known as the sex chromosomes. Female pigeons ZW have just one Z chromosome, and therefore just one allele for each of the genes located there. Recombination and Sex-Linked Genes When gametes egg and sperm form, chromosomes go through a process called recombination. If a Y sperm fertilizes an egg, the embryo becomes a male. In humans and other mammals, the sex chromosomes are X and Y. If an X sperm fertilizes an egg, the embryo becomes a female. Sex Chromosomes Sex chromosomes determine whether an individual is male or female. Autosomes come in pairs of homologous chromosomes. Red-green colorblindness — Inability differentiate between read and green. So for the genes on the sex chromosomes, males have just one copy. In males, recombination between homologous Z chromosomes can make new combinations of color and dilute alleles by chance, some offspring will still receive the same allele combination as the father. With sex-linked genes, male mammals and female birds have no back-up copy. If one X and Y XY are present in the embryo, it generally develops into a male. The X and Y chromosomes, however, have different genes. Since boys have just one X-chromosome, which they receive from their mother, inheriting one defective copy of the gene will render them colorblind. If two X chromosomes XX are present in the embryo, it generally develops into a female. Egg and sperm join to make a zygote, which develops into a new offspring. Male Pattern Baldness Hemophilia — Causes the blood not to clot. The two copies may be the same, or they may be different. The result is that females will have two copies of the sex-linked gene while males will only have one copy of this gene. If get a cut it may take a along time to clot or internal bleeding may result from a bruise. In humans below , the pattern is reversed.
Video about an example of a sex linked trait:
Sex Linked Punnett Squares
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