Nel Noddings In Noddings published Caring, in which she developed the idea of care as a feminine ethic, and applied it to the practice of moral education. The Metaphysics of Morals. She more precisely calls for the public provision of Doulas, paid professional care-workers who care for care-givers, and uses the principle of Doula to justify welfare for all care-givers, akin to worker's compensation or unemployment benefits. But although they overlap, these are discrete fields in that although care ethics connotes feminine traits, not all feminine and feminist ethics are care ethics, and the necessary connection between care ethics and femininity has been subject to rigorous challenge. Inventing a New Family Politics. The Nature of Love, vol. Among all things of creation, humans themselves are "central" because they have the ability to cultivate and centre natural forces.
As Ruddick points out, at least three distinct but overlapping meanings of care have emerged in recent decades—an ethic defined in opposition to justice, a kind of labor, and a particular relationship , 4. Following this tradition, the charge that care ethics is a slave morality interprets the different voice of care as emerging from patriarchal traditions characterized by rigidly enforced sexual divisions of labor. Defining care as everything we do to satisfy vital biological needs, develop and sustain basic capabilities, and avoid unnecessary suffering, Engster applies these goals to domestic politics, economic justice, international relations, and culture. Care ethicists dispute the inference that because care and justice have evolved as distinct practices and ideals, that they are incompatible. The Heart of Justice. Governments ought to primarily care for their own populations, but should also help the citizens of other nations living under abusive or neglectful regimes, within reasonable limits. She characterized this difference as one of theme, however, rather than of gender. Gilligan posited that men and women often speak different languages that they think are the same, and she sought to correct the tendency to take the male perspective as the prototype for humanity in moral reasoning. It is thought that his pure virtue would lead others to follow his example. Although lists differ, they often include some of the following: Yet others explore the benefits of integrating care ethics with less liberal traditions of justice, such as Marxism Bubeck, It was clearly not written by Confucius or during his lifetime. Although he acknowledges that women are disadvantaged in current caring distributions and are often socialized to value self-effacing care, his theory is feminist only in seeking to assure that the basic needs of women and girls are met and their capabilities developed. Final Report to the National Institute of Education. However, while theorists define care ethics as a theory derived from actual practices, they simultaneously resist subjectivism and moral relativism. Other theorists compare the compatibility between care ethics and concepts of central importance to a Kantian liberal tradition. If you're interested in guides like this to disciplines other than philosophy, see my list of lists of them. For example, both Maurice Hamington and Daniel Engster make room for self-care in their definitions of care, but focus more precisely on special bodily features and end goals of care Hamington, ; Engster, Noddings rejected universal principles for prescribed action and judgment, arguing that care must always be contextually applied. Virginia Held Virginia Held is the editor and author of many books pertaining to care ethics. Didier and David Pankenier relate the shapes of both the ancient Chinese characters for Di and Tian to the patterns of stars in the northern skies, either drawn, in Didier's theory by connecting the constellations bracketing the north celestial pole as a square,  or in Pankenier's theory by connecting some of the stars which form the constellations of the Big Dipper and broader Ursa Major , and Ursa Minor Little Dipper. It increasingly informs moral analysis of the professions, such as education, medicine, nursing, and business, spurring new topics and modes of inquiry. It merely identifies passages that are famous, often quoted, discussed in books about Chinese Philosophy , or that I consider to be especially expressive for the principles of the thought of Confucius. Gilligan, Lyons, and Hammer. Premised on a fundamental non-contractual human need for care, Held construes care as the most basic moral value.
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