According to ATSA , only in the states that utilize empirically derived risk assessment procedures and publicly identify only high risk offenders, has community notification demonstrated some effectiveness. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. A majority of states apply systems based on conviction offenses only, where sex offender registration is mandatory if person pleads or is found guilty of violating any of the listed offenses. Some states scientifically evaluate the future risk of the offender and hide low-risk offenders from public. The public does not have access to the registry; it is available to employers of people who work with children or mentally disabled people, to authorities responsible for licensing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and to those responsible for approving foster care and adoptions. Some states exclude low tier offenders from public registries while in others, all offenders are publicly listed.
Information pertaining to names, addresses, physical description and vehicles are made public via official websites. A November Maryland Court of Appeals ruling exempts homeless persons from that state's registration requirements, which has prompted a drive to compose new laws covering this contingency. Instead, registration is a mandatory collateral consequence of criminal conviction. A bill to create a publicly accessible registry for domestic violence offenders passed the Texas House of Representatives in , but was not voted on in the Texas Senate. This made Agan question whether creating sex offender registries was a rational idea. The thought of getting on the sex offender registry may or may not deter non-sex offenders from committing sex crimes. Regardless of whether they are at work, offenders must extinguish all outside residential lighting and post a sign stating, "No candy or treats at this residence - sex offender at this residence". In some states non-sexual offenses such as unlawful imprisonment may require sex offender registration. In some jurisdictions, they cannot live within a certain distance of places children or families gather. All 50 states and District of Columbia maintain registries that are open to public via sex offender registration websites, although some registered sex offenders are visible to law enforcement only. Application to offenses other than felony sexual offenses[ edit ] Sex offender registration has been applied to crimes other than rape, child molestation, and child pornography offenses and is sometimes applied to certain non-sexual offenses. It records the details of anyone convicted of a sexual offence against a child or a mentally disabled person. However, the study also found that making sex offender registration publicly available may deter some potential first time sex offenders from committing an offense that would get them on the registry in the first place. However, in other localities, the complete lists are not available to the general public but are known to the police. Some sex offenders may come to view their central identity as being that of a sex offender due to the registry, and the more a sex offender views themselves as being a criminal the more likely they are to reoffend. A study found no evidence that New York's registry or notification laws reduced sexual offenses by rapists, child molesters, sexual recidivists, or first-time sex offenders. In , a murder registry was proposed in Rhode Island and an animal abuser registry was proposed in Pennsylvania. It will be managed by the New Zealand Police and information will be shared between the Police, Child, Youth and Family , the Department of Corrections , the Ministry of Social Development , and the Department of Building and Housing —government agencies which deal with child safety. Sex offenders' spouses and children can also face harassment and financial hardship as a result of their loved one's sex offender status. In the late s, a study showed that Indiana sex offenders have recidivism of about 1. Determining the tier level and whether or not a person would be subject to public disclosure, when relocating to another state, can be close to impossible without consulting an attorney or officials responsible for managing registration in the destination state, due to constantly changing laws and vagueness in some states legislative language. People listed on the register are prohibited from working with children or mentally disabled people, from managing institutions that care for children or mentally disabled people, and from being foster parents or adoptive parents. This proposed register has received support from both the ruling National Party and the opposition Labour Party. The Human Rights Watch organization criticized these laws in a page report published in ,  and in another report in Montana, for example, has a publicly accessible violent offender registry that includes crimes such as aggravated assault, robbery, assaulting a police officer, both deliberate and non-deliberate homicide and a third conviction for domestic violence. United Kingdom[ edit ] In the United Kingdom, the Violent and Sex Offender Register ViSOR is a database of records of those required to register with the Police under the Sexual Offences Act , those jailed for more than 12 months for violent offences, and unconvicted people thought to be at risk of offending. However, since sex crimes are the most under-reported crimes,  whether or not the Department of Justice's 5.
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